Volume 7, Issue 2 (Spring 2021)  

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Abstract (1914 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (734 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (628 Views)   |   Highlights
• Nurses use the pattern of personal knowing in three ways; the therapeutic use of self, self-centering, and eliminating therapeutic communication.
• The therapeutic use of self is characterized as effective care and nurse-patient interaction. 
• The nurse’s insistence on biases and prejudices is associated with self-centering in patient care. 
• The nurse’s discriminatory beliefs are manifested by eliminating therapeutic communications as well as reluctant and mechanical care
Plain Language Summary 
Personal knowing refers to the awareness and knowledge of the nurse about the personal characteristics of herself/himself and the patient; it required putting aside biases and prejudices about the patient and using this knowledge for better and higher quality care. If nurses apply personal knowing properly, they will provide interactive and effective care. However, if they have prejudices and biases towards the patient, their care will be focused on themselves rather than the patient. The findings showed that the nurses have used the pattern of personal knowing in 3 ways, including the therapeutic use of self, self-centering, and eliminating therapeutic communication.


Abstract (1630 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (268 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (196 Views)   |   Highlights
• Parenting training programs help parents gain an understanding of their children’s psychological, emotional, and behavioral problems.
• Bullying behavior is an intentional and repeated physical, verbal, or psychological pressure on weaker subjects by a stronger individual. Bullying individuals have educational, interpersonal, and psychological problems.
• The explored mothers with bullying sons have reported mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, they are always blamed by the school and other parents, because of their son’s behaviors.
• The CALM and SPACE programs were effective in reducing maternal rumination and anxiety. However, CALM was more effective than SPACE in reducing maternal anxiety.
Plain Language Summary 
Parent training programs help parents to learn the best ways to correct their children’s behaviors and have a better relationship with the child. The CALM and SPACE programs could help mothers improve their parent-child relationship; this is achieved by recognizing their children’s psychological and behavioral problems and reduce their problems and worries of themselves, such as anxiety and rumination. This research revealed that the mentioned programs helped the mothers of bullying sons to reduce their anxiety and rumination.


Abstract (749 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (122 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (101 Views)   |   Highlights
• Challenges of family-work conflicts among working women, especially the married female managers with children are serious issues affecting all human societies, including Iran. 
• Female managers used instrumental strategies, problem-solving management strategies, emotion-related strategies, behavioral measures, and measures to improve personal development and growth for work-family enrichment. 
• The factors facilitating work-family enrichment were self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, support, and environmental network. 
• The challenges of family cultural context, the non-supportive culture of the organization, and the cultural challenges of society were barriers to work-family enrichment. 
Plain Language Summary 
Conflicts between work and family in employee women impact their entire life. Work-family enrichment creates a new opportunity for women to fulfill their dual roles as mothers and managers. The collected results indicated that the female managers were using several strategies, including instrumental strategies, problem-solving management strategies, emotion-related strategies, behavioral measures, and measures to promote personal development and growth for work-family enrichment. This process led to job satisfaction and satisfaction with marital life among the female managers.


Abstract (356 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (97 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (43 Views)   |   Highlights
• Vomiting was the most frequent complication after anesthesia in orthopedic surgeries. 
• There was a significant relationship between the duration of anesthesia and the mean scores of shivering, pain, nausea, tachycardia, and tachypnea. 
• Tachycardia was significantly associated with complete intravenous anesthesia and the duration of anesthesia.
Plain Language Summary 
The duration of surgery in orthopedic surgeries is often longer than one hour. Therefore, these patients are at higher risks of complications from general anesthesia. The present study determined the prevalence of post-anesthesia complications in orthopedic surgeries and its related factors in 2020. The obtained results indicated that the most complication after anesthesia in orthopedic surgeries was vomiting; the least complication was changes in blood pressure. Gender was significantly associated with pain, nausea, and hypertension. There was a significant relationship between the duration of anesthesia and shivering, pain, nausea, and pulse rate. There was also a significant relationship between the types of surgery and shivering, pain, blood pressure, and nausea. Pulse rate was significantly associated with complete intravenous anesthesia and the duration of anesthesia.


Abstract (488 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (128 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (89 Views)   |   Highlights
• Mindfulness training and dialectical behavior therapy reduced drug craving in substance-dependent clients.
• Emotion regulation was improved in substance-dependence treatment seekers using mindfulness training and dialectical behavior therapy.
• There was no significant difference between the effects of mindfulness training and dialectical behavior therapy on drug craving and emotion regulation.
Plain Language Summary 
Drug use disorders and their adverse consequences are among the main public health problems worldwide. Drug craving is introduced as the most prominent factor and the core variable of drug dependence affecting individuals’ relapse. Emotion regulation is among the skills that help substance-dependent individuals better manage their emotions. This study suggested that emotion regulation in drug use disorder treatment seekers improved using mindfulness training and dialectical behavior therapy. Mindfulness training and dialectical behavior therapy reduced drug craving in the examined substance-dependent clients.


Abstract (434 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (102 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (69 Views)   |   Highlights
• The family caregivers of the children with chronic conditions encountered moderate burnout.
• The caregivers with lower education experienced the highest emotional exhaustion.
• Having more than two children with chronic illness was among the factors that significantly affected the mean scores of caregivers’ burnout.
• Insufficient income seemed to be among the main causes of burnout in the parents and family caregivers of children with chronic conditions.
Plain Language Summary 
Taking care of children with chronic diseases, managing their general and special caring needs as well as their educational and insurance organizations matters, prone parents and family caregivers to stress and burnout, and jeopardize their physical and emotional health. The present study results suggested that the majority of examined caregivers experienced high or moderate levels of burnout. The highest emotional exhaustion was experienced by the caregivers of children with disabilities, children with metabolic and immune disorders, and those with chronic neurological disorders. Caregivers with lower education experienced the highest emotional exhaustion. Also, insufficient income, having more than two children, and having more than two children with chronic illness were among the factors that significantly affected the caregivers’ burnout.


Abstract (496 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (141 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (62 Views)   |   Highlights
• There was a direct and significant relationship between maternal stress and children’s behavioral disorders.
• There was a direct and significant relationship between mother-child interaction and mothers’ mental health.
• There was a negative relationship between maternal stress and mothers’ mental health.
• Maternal mental health played a mediating role in the relationship between mother-child interaction and children’s behavioral disorders.
Plain Language Summary 
Behavioral problems of children are common and debilitating conditions that cause many difficulties for children and their families. Accordingly, these conditions lead to helplessness and reduced self-efficacy and affect children’s personal and academic performance. The mothers of students with learning disabilities usually report extensive negative consequences of psychological wellbeing problems as soon as they notice their child’s problems. In general, this study suggested the following conclusions: there was a direct relationship between mothers’ stress and children’s behavioral disorders, as well as mother-child interaction and the mental health of the mothers of children with learning disabilities. There was a negative relationship between mother-child interaction and children’s behavioral disorders, as well as parental stress and the mental health of the mothers. The mental health of the mothers played a mediating role in the relationship between mother-child interaction and children’s behavioral disorders, as well as parental stress and children’s behavioral disorders. 


Abstract (374 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (140 Downloads)   |   Full-Text (HTML) (92 Views)   |   Highlights
• Group schema therapy improves hopefulness and self-efficacy in clients with substance dependence.
• Group schema therapy effectively promoted psychological wellbeing in clients with substance dependence. 
• Group schema therapy increased resilience in substance-dependent clients under treatment with methadone and buprenorphine.
Plain Language Summary 
Substance dependence has destructive effects on the physical aspects and psychological wellbeing of individuals. Those with substance dependence have a lower level of psychological resilience and less life satisfaction, compared with non-substance abusers. The positive effects of schema therapy on emotion regulation, developing effective relationships, biopsychological health, self-acceptance, self-efficacy, competency, and the acceptance of change are associated with enhanced resilience against stressful life events and psychological wellbeing. The most important results of the present study were as follows: group schema therapy is effective in enhancing the psychological wellbeing and resilience in people with substance dependence under maintenance treatment with methadone and short-term detoxification with buprenorphine.



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