Volume 5, Issue 4 (Autumn 2019)                   JCCNC 2019, 5(4): 213-222 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


1- Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , Janmohammadi.s@iums.ac.ir
3- Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1999 Views)
Background: The adults’ life is rooted in their childhood. Children living in single-parent families have less self-efficacy than others. Educating self-awareness skill reliance on the family is among the key aspects of self-efficacy promotion in early childhood. The present study aimed to determine the effect of self-awareness training of the mothers as the head of the household on the self-efficacy of their 10- to 12-year-old sons.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a Pre-test-Post-test and a control group design. The study sample consisted of 10- to 12-year-old boys (N=71) from public schools of Ray City, Iran, and their heads of the family mothers. The study subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The Pre-test was administered to both groups. Then, the mothers of the intervention group attended four 45-minute training sessions twice a week. Moreover, the Post-test was administered to the groups three months after the end of the intervention. The required data were collected by demographic characteristics form, Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), and Self-efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C). Furthermore, the obtained data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, including frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics, including the Chi-squared test, Fisher’s Exact test, Independent Samples t-test, Paired Samples t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS.
Results: The study results suggested a significant difference in self-awareness Mean±SD scores of the mothers in the intervention group before (41.77±10.59) and after (53.83±8.43) conducting the intervention (P<0.001); however, such difference was not significantly different in the control group before (47.31±12.45) and three months after the intervention (47.05±11.76). There was a significant difference between the self-efficacy Mean±SD scores of boys in the intervention group before (61.88±9.29) and after (70.44±8.12) providing the intervention (P<0.001); however, this difference was not significantly different in the control group before (65.68±11.33) and after the intervention provision (65.14±12.01).
Conclusion: In this study, mothers’ self-awareness positively affected their sons’ self-efficacy. Thus, self-awareness enabled mothers to identify the emotions of themselves and their children and become aware of them and pay more attention to interacting with their children. These findings help school health nurses in providing a proper educational environment with the collaboration of mothers who are the head of the family. 
Full-Text [PDF 638 kb]   (1192 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1947 Views)  
● The school health nurses help to promote community healthcare, prevent diseases, and ultimately alleviate illnesses in the educational environment of schools.
● The current study determined the effect of self-awareness training in the mothers who are the head of the family on the self-efficacy of their 10- to 12-year-old sons.
● The obtained results indicated that the self-efficacy score of 10- to 12-year-old boys increased after self-awareness training was provided to their mothers.
● Providing training classes on self-awareness and self-efficacy is recommended to educational planners as a lowcost, feasible, and accessible approach to target groups, including students and parents.
Plain Language Summary
Children in single-parent families spend less time with their parents, compared to nuclear families; as a result, they may suffer weakness in performance and competence. More than 20% of students in Iran suffer from personal problems, such as low capability and family issues. According to the general population and housing census of 2016, the age group of 0-14 years constitutes 24% of the country’s population. Some families in the country include a singleparent, and of these families, 83% are managed by females. This study discussed the effect of self-awareness skill training in the mothers who are the head of the family on the self-efficacy of their 10- to 12-year-old sons. Based on the collected results, self-awareness skill training was effective in self-efficacy. Accordingly, educational program planners could use this method to promote mental health as well as self-efficacy in single-parent children.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/10/21 | Accepted: 2020/04/11 | Published: 2020/05/12

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.