Volume 10, Issue 1 (Winter 2024)                   JCCNC 2024, 10(1): 65-74 | Back to browse issues page


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Muqdad Idan M, Khudhair A K S, Haghani S, Najafi Ghezeljeh T. Investigating the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Iraqi Intensive Care Nursing Staff Regarding Hand Hygiene. JCCNC 2024; 10 (1) :65-74
URL: http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/article-1-464-en.html
1- School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- College of Nursing, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
3- Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Cardiovascular Nursing Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1167 Views)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections are recognized as a major risk factor in healthcare settings. Hand hygiene as the first stage of infection control plays an important role in reducing these infections. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding hand hygiene among nurses in intensive care units (ICUs) of Basrah City and Dhi Qar City, Iraq.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study targeted 231 ICU nursing staff working in hospitals of Al-Basra and Dhi-Qar in Iraq in 2022. The subjects were recruited through the census. To assess the nurses’ hand hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practice, electronic questionnaires were administered via WhatsApp. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency, Mean±SD) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher test). The data analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 22. Meanwhile, a significance level of <0.05 was considered for all statistical tests.
Results: The mean scores (ranges) of nurses’ hand hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practice were 4.74±1.82 (1-10), 77.25±7.89 (55-95), and 49.80±12.23 (21-70), respectively. There was a significant relationship between hand hygiene knowledge and gender, with female nurses’ knowledge being higher compared to male nurses (P=0.03). Furthermore, nurses with less than 5 years of practical experience in the ICU had a higher mean score of attitudes toward hand hygiene compared to nurses with 5-10 years of practical experience (P=0.015). Additionally, nurses with less than 5 years of experience in the ICU showed a higher mean score of hand hygiene practice compared to nurses with more than 10 years of practical experience (P=0.028).
Conclusion: According to the findings, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of ICU nurses about hand hygiene were inappropriate. It is necessary to implement educational programs to improve the knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iraqi ICU nurses in this area.
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● Hand hygiene serves as a critical first line of defense in reducing hospital-acquired infections.
● A lack of knowledge and an unfavorable level of attitude and practice about hand hygiene were observed among the ICU nurses.
● Female nurses demonstrated higher knowledge compared to male nurses.
● Nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing exhibited more positive attitudes and practices about hand hygiene compared to those with school nursing degrees and diplomas.
● A significant association was found between nurses’ attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and their years of practical experience in the ICU. 
Plain Language Summary 
Hand hygiene serves as a critical first line of defense in reducing hospital-acquired infections and is paramount for infection control. This study determined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nurses in the ICUs of Basrah Hospital and Dhi Qar Hospital in Iraq regarding hand hygiene. The findings indicated that ICU nurses exhibit a deficiency in knowledge, an unfavorable attitude, and poor adherence to hand hygiene practices.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2023/02/9 | Accepted: 2023/09/12 | Published: 2024/01/10

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