References Guideline

Material Type

In-Text Reference

Reference List & Notes

Book: One author

The environment has increasingly been

questioned’ (Cochrane 2007).

Cochrane, A., 2007. Understanding urban policy: a critical approach, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Book: Two or three authors

When considering the Howard Government’s Indigenous health

expenditure, (Palmer & Short 2010) maintain that…

Palmer, G.R., & Short, S. D., 2010. Health care and public policy: an Australian analysis, 4th edn, Palgrave Macmillan, South Yarra,


Book: More than three authors

A recent study (Seeley et al. 2011) concluded that…

Seeley, R., et al., 2011. Seeley’s anatomy & physiology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

E-Book  online book

We found helpful information about deaf children (Niemann,

Greenstein & David 2004) that meant we could…

Niemann, S., Greenstein, D., & David, D., 2004. Helping children who are deaf: family and community support for children who do

not hear well, Hesperian Foundation, Berkley, CA, viewed 11 June 2007

Chapter in edited book

A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (Richards 1997)

included reference to…

Richards, K. C., 1997. ‘Views on globalization’, in HL Vivaldi (ed.), Australia in a global world, Century, North Ryde, NSW.


Indentifying best practice indicators in management are available

(ed. Zairi 1999) and…

Zairi, M., (ed.) 1999. Best practice: process innovation management, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.

Journal article with one author

In an earlier article, it was proposed (Jackson 2007)…

Jackson, A., 2007. ‘New approaches to drug therapy’, Psychology Today and Tomorrow, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 54-9.

Journal article with two or three authors

This article on art (Kramer & Bloggs 2002) stipulated that…

Kramer, E & Bloggs, T 2002, ‘On quality in art and art therapy’, American Journal of Art Therapy, vol. 40, pp. 218-31.

Journal article with more than three


A recent study to investigate the effects of an organisational stress

management program on employees (Elo et al. 2008)

concluded that…

Elo, A., et al., 2008, Evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization, Journal of Occupational Health

Psychology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10-23.

Article in online journal or magazine

An article linking ethical behaviour and religion (Noor 2008)…

Noor, A., 2008. Ethics, religion and good governance, JOAAG: Journal of Administration & Governance, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 62-77, viewed 17 November 2009,

Journal article retrieved from a


A study examining priming (Johns & Mewhort 2009) discovered …

Johns, E., & Mewhort, D., 2009. Test sequence priming in recognition memory’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, vol. 35, pp. 1162-1174, viewed 20 November 2009, PsyARTICLES database.

Book review in a journal

In his review of Thomas Samaras’ latest book, Marson (2009)


Marson, S. M ., 2009. How big should we be? A Herculean task accomplished, review of Human body size and the laws of scaling: physiological, performance, growth, longevity and ecological ramification, by T Samaras, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, pp. 1299–1300, viewed 20 November 2009, EBSCO EJS


Conference or seminar papers in

published proceedings  print

In a paper about conservation of photographs (Edge 1996),

the proposition that…

Edge, M1996,.. Lifetime prediction: fact or fancy?. In M. S. Koch, T. Padfield, J. S. Johnsen & U. B. Kejser (eds), Proceedings of the Research techniques in photographic conservation conference, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, pp. 97-100.

Conference or seminar papers in

published proceedings  online

Tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for

power and energy.

Tester, J. W., 2008. The future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier. In H Gurgenci & AR Budd (eds), Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International frontiers of science and technology Australian geothermal energy conference, Geoscience Australia, Canberra, viewed 5 January 2010,

Thesis or Dissertation – Print & Unpublished

Nurses working in an acute care environment tend to experience a

high degree of workplace conflict (Duddle 2009).

Duddle, M., 2009. Intraprofessional relations in nursing: A case study (PhD thesis), University of Sydney.

Thesis or Dissertation – retrieved from a


The field of engineering has largely developed around the positivist

philosophical position (Hector 2008).

Hector, D. C. A., 2008. ‘Towards a new philosophy of engineering: Structuring the complex problems from the sustainability discourse’ PhD thesis, viewed 13 September 2010, Australasian Digital Theses database.

Thesis or Dissertation – retrieved from

the web

Lacey (2011) differentiates between instrumental violence and

violence inflicting injury for its own sake.

Lacey, D., 2011. The role of humiliation in collective political violence MSc. thesis). University of Sydney, viewed 8 July, 2011,

Website  entire website

The new website of the

Workplace Relations (DEEWR 2009) includes useful information on current  policy.

Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. 2009. DEEWR, Canberra, viewed 21 November 2009,

Web document  dated & author or

sponsor given

An RBA paper (Simon, Smith & et al 2009) found that participation in

a loyalty program and access to an interest-free period…

Simon, J., Smith, K., & West, T. 2009. Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 November 2009,

Web document  author or sponsor

given but not dated

CSIRO is designing several energy-efficient electric machines to

reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CSIRO n.d.).

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization n.d., Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet, CSIRO, Canberra, viewed 21 November 2009.

Web source with no page numbers

Usually the author or creator of a work is the copyright owner

(University of Sydney 2010, ‘Who owns copyright?’).

University of Sydney. 2010. Guide to copyright, University of Sydney, viewed 24 January 2011,

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