Volume 7, Issue 2 (Spring 2021)                   JCCNC 2021, 7(2): 97-108 | Back to browse issues page


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Aghaei-Malekabadi M, Khodabakhshi-Koolaee A, Afkari F. Effects of CALM and SPACE Parent Training Programs on Rumination and Anxiety in Mothers With Bully Sons. JCCNC. 2021; 7 (2) :97-108
URL: http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/article-1-282-en.html
1- Department of Counseling, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Psychology & Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran. , a.khodabakhshid@khatam.ac.ir
3- Department of Educational Science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1630 Views)
Background: About one-third of children are involved in bullying in primary school. Parenting style, as family background, plays an essential role in bullying. This study aimed to compare the effects of the parent training programs of Coaching Approach Behavior and Leading by Modeling (CALM) and Supportive Parenting for Anxious Childhood Emotions (SPACE) on rumination and anxiety in mothers with a bully son.
Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and a control group design. The setting was the primary schools for boys in district 4 of Tehran City, Iran, in 2020. The statistical population of the research included the mothers of bully sons in one of these schools, i.e., selected using a voluntary convenience sampling technique. In total, 60 mothers whose sons scored higher on the Illinois Bullying Scale (IBS) were selected as the subjects and randomly assigned into 3 groups of 20 individuals (2 intervention groups & 1 control group). The necessary data were collected by the IBS, the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS), and the Self-Anxiety Scale. The intervention group subjects attended CALM or SPACE training programs for 13 two-hour weekly sessions. A three-month follow-up was also performed. The collected data were analyzed using repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in SPSS v. 22.
Results: The present study findings suggested a significant difference between the intervention and control groups in rumination (P=0.0001, F=47.54) and anxiety (P=0.0001, F=86.34) in the post-test phase. However, no significant difference was found between CALM (42.80±2.71) and SPACE (42.16±2.71) programs respecting the effects on rumination (P=0.36). In contrast, SPACE (44±2.71) and CALM (39.46±2.71) programs indicated significant differences concerning their impact on anxiety (P<0.032); the CALM program presented a greater impact on reducing anxiety than SPACE. The follow-up results indicated that the CALM program presented a greater retention effect than SPACE on decreasing anxiety in the studied mothers (42.76±1.02, P=0.0001).
Conclusion: The obtained data revealed that the CALM and SPACE programs were effective in reducing maternal rumination and anxiety. However, CALM was more effective than SPACE in reducing maternal anxiety. School counselors, mental health professionals, psychiatric nurses, and school health nurses are suggested to apply the study findings. 
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• Parenting training programs help parents gain an understanding of their children’s psychological, emotional, and behavioral problems.
• Bullying behavior is an intentional and repeated physical, verbal, or psychological pressure on weaker subjects by a stronger individual. Bullying individuals have educational, interpersonal, and psychological problems.
• The explored mothers with bullying sons have reported mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, they are always blamed by the school and other parents, because of their son’s behaviors.
• The CALM and SPACE programs were effective in reducing maternal rumination and anxiety. However, CALM was more effective than SPACE in reducing maternal anxiety.
Plain Language Summary 
Parent training programs help parents to learn the best ways to correct their children’s behaviors and have a better relationship with the child. The CALM and SPACE programs could help mothers improve their parent-child relationship; this is achieved by recognizing their children’s psychological and behavioral problems and reduce their problems and worries of themselves, such as anxiety and rumination. This research revealed that the mentioned programs helped the mothers of bullying sons to reduce their anxiety and rumination.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2020/12/26 | Accepted: 2021/02/1 | Published: 2021/05/1

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