Volume 7, Issue 2 (Spring 2021)                   JCCNC 2021, 7(2): 87-96 | Back to browse issues page


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Rafii F, Javaheri Tehrani F, Nikbakht Nasrabadi A, Shariatpanahi S. How Do Nurses Apply Personal Knowing to Patient Care? A Grounded Theory Study. JCCNC. 2021; 7 (2) :87-96
URL: http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/article-1-306-en.html
1- Nursing Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Nursing Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , fereshte.javaheri@yahoo.com
3- Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Community Health Nursing, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (1913 Views)
Background: Personal Knowing is an expression of self-knowledge concerning others. Besides, Personal Knowing is the most difficult as well as the most essential pattern of knowing in nursing. The current study aimed to explore how nurses apply personal knowledge in patient care.
Methods: This qualitative study was performed based on the grounded theory method. The study was performed in different hospital wards of Tehran City, Iran. The required data were generated using semi-structured interviews and clinical observations. Finally, 15 interviews and 8 sessions of observation were included in the data analysis. Strauss and Corbin’s constant comparison method (2008) was used to analyze the collected data.
Results: The obtained findings suggested that nurses use the Personal Knowing pattern in 3 forms of the therapeutic use of self, self-centering, and elimination of therapeutic communication. The therapeutic use of self was accompanied by kindness and amiability; efforts to strengthen the patients’ spirit; giving comfort and hope; humor; talking in a friendly manner, and gaining the patient’s trust and cooperation. Self-centering was characterized by establishing silence in the ward, strict enforcement of the rules, setting more rules, and developing rules for the method of care provision. Eliminating the therapeutic communication was accompanied by the referral of patients to others, avoidance, reluctance, and mechanical care.
Conclusion: The obtained findings added to the knowledge of the patterns of knowing in nursing. The therapeutic use of self leads to a positive outcome of care as well as the satisfaction of nurses and patients. However, a self-centering and eliminating therapeutic relationship will raise an inappropriate image of nursing.
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• Nurses use the pattern of personal knowing in three ways; the therapeutic use of self, self-centering, and eliminating therapeutic communication.
• The therapeutic use of self is characterized as effective care and nurse-patient interaction. 
• The nurse’s insistence on biases and prejudices is associated with self-centering in patient care. 
• The nurse’s discriminatory beliefs are manifested by eliminating therapeutic communications as well as reluctant and mechanical care
Plain Language Summary 
Personal knowing refers to the awareness and knowledge of the nurse about the personal characteristics of herself/himself and the patient; it required putting aside biases and prejudices about the patient and using this knowledge for better and higher quality care. If nurses apply personal knowing properly, they will provide interactive and effective care. However, if they have prejudices and biases towards the patient, their care will be focused on themselves rather than the patient. The findings showed that the nurses have used the pattern of personal knowing in 3 ways, including the therapeutic use of self, self-centering, and eliminating therapeutic communication.

Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2021/01/29 | Accepted: 2021/04/7 | Published: 2021/05/1

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