Volume 2, Issue 1 (Winter 2016 -- 2016)                   JCCNC 2016, 2(1): 37-52 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Bastani F, Hajizadeh S, Sa`atchi K, Haghani H. Comparing the Effect of Acupressure and Cryotherapy on the Pain Caused by Removal of Chest Drain Tube in the Elderly Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery. JCCNC. 2016; 2 (1) :37-52
URL: http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/article-1-83-en.html

1- Department of Geriatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- MSc. Department of Geriatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (371 Views)

Background: Aging has a growing trend in the world. The elderly experience a high incidence of hospitalization and coronary bypass surgery compared with other age groups, and pain is the most common complaint in these patients. This research was conducted to compare the effect of acupressure and cryotherapy on the pain of removing drain tube from the chest of the elderly who have undergone open heart surgery.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental clinincal trial, 150 elderly people undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with drain tube in their chests and hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit of Shahid Rajaei Hospital (affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health and Treatment Services, Tehran, Iran) were selected through random sampling method. Then, they were divided into 3 groups of acupressure, cryotherapy, and control. The acupressure group received pressure on ST36, P6, LI4 points. The cryotherapy group received cold therapy through applying three packs of cooling gel, and the control group received routine postoperative cares. The pain intensity was measured 20 minutes before the insertion of the tube, during insertion, and 10 minutes after removal of the drain tube. The tools for collecting data were abbreviated mental test form, demographic questionnaire, and visual analoge scale. The obtained data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS version 20.
Results: In terms of demographic characteristics, the patients were homogenous. Before the intervention, there were no significant differences among three groups in terms of pain intensity (P=0.93). However, after the intervention, pain intensity, immediately after, and 10 minutes after removal of chest tube, significantly reduced in the experimental groups compared with the control group (P˂0.001). In general, reduction of pain intensity was higher in the acupressure group compared with the other two groups (P˂0.001).
Conclusion: Applying acupressure on ST36, LI4, and P6 points is effective in reducing the intensity of pain caused by removal of drain tube from the chest of the elderly patients. It is recommended as a safe and inexpensive drug-free approach to control pain caused by the removal of drain tube.

Full-Text [PDF 726 kb]   (417 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2015/06/13 | Accepted: 2015/09/5 | Published: 2016/02/1

1. Aghamiri, ZB, Vijeh, M, Latif, & Nejad B 2005, '[Examining the effect of acupressure on the intensity of pain associated with primary dysmenorrhea (Persian)]', Hayat, vol. 11, no. 3-4, pp. 19-28.
2. Akbarzadeh, M, Masoudi, Z, Hadianfard, MJ, Kasraeian, M & Zare, N 2015, 'Comparison of the effects of maternal supportive care and acupressure (BL32 acupoint) on pregnant women's pain intensity and delivery outcome', Women's Health Bulletin, 2014, p. 129208. doi: 10.1155/2014/129208 [DOI:10.1155/2014/129208]
3. Alessandrini, M, Napolitano, B, Micarelli, A, de Padova, A & Bruno, E 2012, 'P6 acupressure effectiveness on acute vertiginous patients: a double blind randomized study', Journal Alternative Complementary Medicine, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1121–26. doi:10.1089/acm.2011.0384 [DOI:10.1089/acm.2011.0384]
4. Allred, KD, Byers, JF & Sole, ML 2010, 'The effect of music on postoperative pain and anxiety', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 15-25. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2008.12.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2008.12.002]
5. Al–Otaibi, RA, Mokabel, FM & Al-Ghuneimy, Y 2013, 'The effect of cold application on pain and anxiety during chest tube removal', Journal of American Science, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 13-23.
6. Amany, S, Amany, A & Eman AEA 2014, 'Effectiveness of acupressure versus isometric exercise on pain, stiffness, and physical function in knee osteoarthritis female patients', Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 193–200. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2013.02.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.jare.2013.02.003]
7. Andersen, HH, Poulsen, JN, Uchida, Y, Nikbakht, A, Arendt-Nielsen, L & Gazerani, P 2015, 'Cold and L-menthol-induced sensitization in healthy volunteers-a cold hypersensitivity analogue to the heat/capsaicin model', Pain, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 880-89. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000123 [DOI:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000123]
8. Andrews, S & Dempsey, B 2011, Acupressure and reflexology for dummies, Wiley & Sons, New Jersy.
9. Bakhtiyari, F 2014, '[Validation of the Persian version of the abbreviated mental test (AMT) in elderly residents of kahrizakcharity foundation (Persian)]', Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 487–94.
10. Barr, J, Fraser, GL, Puntillo, K, Ely, EW, Gélinas, C & Dasta, JF et al. 2013, 'Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit', Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 263-306. [DOI:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182783b72] [PMID]
11. Bickley, L & Szilagyi, PG 2013, Barbara Bates' pocket guide to physical examination and history taking [A Emami Shushtari, Persian trans.], 7th edn, Jame`e Negar Publications, Tehran. [PMCID]
12. Brolinson, PG, Price, J, Ditmyer, M & Reis, D 2001, 'Nurses' perceptions of complementary and alternative medical therapies', Journal of Community Health, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 175-89. doi: 10.1023/a:1010369012151 [DOI:10.1023/A:1010369012151]
13. Canbulat, N, Ayhan, F & Inal, S 2015, 'Effectiveness of external cold and vibration for procedural pain relief during peripheral intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients', Pain Managment Nursing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 33-39. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.03.003] [PMID]
14. Chen, HM, Wang, HH, Chiu, MH & Hu, HM 2015, 'Effects of acupressure on menstrual distress and low back pain in dysmenorrheic young adult women: an experimental study', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 188-97. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.06.002]
15. Chen, YW & Wang, HH 2014, 'The effectiveness of acupressure on relieving pain: a systematic review', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 539-50. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2012.12.005 [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2012.12.005]
16. Cordia, MJ, Hirsigerb, S, Mérillatb, S & Rascha, B 2015, 'Improving sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly', Neuropsychologia, vol. 69, pp. 176–182. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia
17. Dabiri, F & Shahi, A 2014, 'The effect of Li4 acupressure on labor pain intensity and duration of labor: a randomized controlled trial', Oman Medical Journal, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 425-59. doi: 10.5001/omj.2014.113 [DOI:10.5001/omj.2014.113]
18. Dehghan, M & Farahbod, F 2014, 'The efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain, a clinical trial study', Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1-4. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/7404.4818 [DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7404.4818]
19. Demir, Y & Khorshid, L 2010, 'The effect of cold application in combination with standard analgesic administration on pain and anxiety during chest tube removal: a single-blinded, randomized, double-controlled study', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 186-96. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2009.09.002] [PMID]
20. Dreyer, NE, Cutshall, SM, Huebner, M, Fossc, DM, Lovely, JK, Bauer, BA et al. 2015, 'Effect of massage therapy on pain, anxiety, relaxation, and tension after colorectal surgery: a randomized study', Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 154–59. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.06.004 [DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.06.004]
21. Dykstra, JH, Hill HM, Miller, MG, Cheatham, CC, Michael, TJ, & Baker, RJ 2009, 'Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes', Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 136-41. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136 [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.136]
22. Eğlence, R, Karataş, N & Taşci, S 2013, 'The effect of acupressure on the level of fatigue in hemodialysis patients', Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 23-31. [PMID]
23. EL-Gendy, SR 2015, 'Impact of acupressure on dysmenorrheal pain among teen-aged girls students', Wulfenia Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 218-25.
24. Eliopoulos, Ch 2014, Gerontological nursing, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
25. Ernst, E 2006, 'Acupuncture-a critical analysis', Journal of International Medicine, vol. 259, no. 2, pp. 125-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2005.01584.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2005.01584.x]
26. Ertug, N & Ulker, S 2012, 'The effect of cold application on pain due to chest tube removal', Journal of Clinical Nursing, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 784-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03955.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03955.x]
27. Eslami, V, Zimmerman, M, Grewal, T, Katz, M & Lipton, R 2016, 'Pain and sleep disturbance in the elderly: Evaluation the role of stress and depression (P7.310)', International Journal of Geriatrics Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 450-7. doi: 10.1002/gps.4349 [DOI:10.1002/gps.4349]
28. Foreman, MD, Milisen, K & Fulmer, TT 2010, Critical care nursing of older adults; Best Practices, Amazon Publication, New York.
29. Geib, J, Rieger, MA, Joos, S, Eschweiler, GW, Dresler, T & Metzger, FG 2015, 'Introduction of auricular acupuncture in elderly patients suffering from major depression: protocol of a mixed methods feasibility study', BioMed Research International. doi: 10.1155/2015/678410 [DOI:10.1155/2015/678410]
30. Ghaemmaghami, M, Akbarzadeh, M, Yazdanpanahi, Z, Zare, N, Azizi, A & Mohagheghzadeh, A 2014, '[Comparing the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at bl23 point on the intensity of perineal pain after childbirth in primipara women (Persian)]', Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 26-31.
31. Gorji, HM, Nesami, BM, Ayyasi, M, Ghafari, R & Yazdani, J 2014, 'Comparison of ice packs application and relaxation therapy in pain reduction during chest tube removal following cardiac surgery', North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19-24. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.125857 [DOI:10.4103/1947-2714.125857]
32. Gutgsell, KJ, Schluchter, M & Margevicius, S 2013, 'Music therapy reduces pain in palliative care patients: a randomized controlled trial', Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 822-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.05.008 [DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.05.008]
33. Hajiamini, Z, Nir Masoud, S, Ebadi, A, Afzali, M & Matin, AA 2012, 'Comparing the effects of ice massage and acupressure on labor pain reduction', Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 169-72. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.05.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.05.003]
34. Hamidzadeh, A, Shahpourian, F, Orak, R, Montazeri, AS & Khosravi, A 2012, '[Effects of LI4 acupressure on labor pain in the first stage of labor (Persian)], Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 133-38. [DOI:10.1111/j.1542-2011.2011.00138.x] [PMID]
35. Hausswirth, Ch, Louis, J, Bieuzen, F, Pournot, H, Fournier, J, Filliard, JR et al. 2011, 'Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners', PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 12, p. e2774. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027749 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027749]
36. Haynes, JM 2015, 'Randomized controlled trial of cryoanalgesia (ice bag) to reduce pain associated with arterial puncture', Respiratory Care, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.4187/respcare.03312 [DOI:10.4187/respcare.03312]
37. Hodkinson, HM 1972, 'Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly', Age and Ageing, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 233-8. doi: 10.1093/ageing/1.4.233 [DOI:10.1093/ageing/1.4.233]
38. Hood, BS, Henderson, W & Pasero, C 2014, 'Chest tube removal: an expanded role for the bedside nurse', Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 53-59. doi 10.1016/j.jopan.2013.11.001 [DOI:10.1016/j.jopan.2013.11.001]
39. Hosseinian, A, Kasayi, V, Mohammadzade, AR, Habibzadeh, S, Saghi, F & Davari, M 2014, '[Evaluation of early complications Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery (CABGS) in the first month after operation in Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ardabil during 2013-2014 (Persian)]', Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 18-27.
40. Hsiung, WT, Chang, YC, Yeh, ML & Chang, YH 2015, 'Acupressure improves the postoperative comfort of gastric cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial', Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 339-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2015.03.010 [DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2015.03.010]
41. Jansen, MP 2008, Managing pain in the older adult, Elsevier Publication, New York.
42. Johnson MI, Paley, CA, Howe, TE & Sluka, KA 2015, 'Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for acute pain', The Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, vol. 15, no. 6, p. CD006142. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006142.pub3 [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD006142.pub3]
43. Jun, EM, Chang, S, Kang, DH & Kim, S 2007, 'Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: a non-randomized controlled trial', International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 973-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.03.021 [DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.03.021]
44. Kang, H, Chung, YS, Choe, JW, Woo, YC, Kim, SW, Park, SJ et al. 2014, 'Application of lidocaine jelly on chest tubes to reduce pain caused by drainage catheter after coronary artery bypass surgery', Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1398-403. doi 10.3346/jkms.2014.29.10.1398 [DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.10.1398]
45. Karimipour, F, Fayyazi, S, Maula, K & Latifi, M 2011, '[Effect of acupressure on pain intensity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (Persian)], Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 269-275.
46. Karlin, BE, Trockel, M, Spira, AP, Taylor, CB & Manber, R 2015, 'National evaluation of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia among older versus younger veterans', International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 30, no. 3, ,pp. 308–15. doi: 10.1002/gps.4143 [DOI:10.1002/gps.4143]
47. Kaviani, M, Ashuri, M, Azima, S, Rajaeifard, A & Hadianfard, MJ 2012, '[Comparing the effect of the two procedures–acupressure and ice massage at LI4 point on the intensity of pain, anxiety level and labor length (Persian)]', Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 220-28.
48. Kaye, AD, Baluch, A & Scott, JT 2010, 'Pain management in the elderly population: a review', Ochsner Journal, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 179–87. [PMID] [PMCID]
49. Khalkhali, H, Tanha, ZE, Feizi, A & Ardabili, SS 2014, 'Effect of applying cold gel pack on the pain associated with deep breathing and coughing after open heart surgery', Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 545-49. [PMID] [PMCID]
50. King, NB & Fraser, V 2013, 'Untreated pain, narcotics regulation, and global health ideologies', PLoS Medicine, vol. 10, no. 4, p. e1001411. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001411 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001411]
51. Kol, E, Erdogan, A, Karslı, B & Erbil, N 2013, 'Evaluation of the outcomes of ice application for the control of pain associated with chest tube irritation', Pain Management Nursing, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 29-35. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2010.05.001] [PMID]
52. Leventhal, LC, Bianchi, RC & de Oliveira, SM 2010, 'Clinical trial comparing three types of cryotherapy in nonpregnant women', Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 339-45. doi: 10.1590/s0080-62342010000200014 [DOI:10.1590/S0080-62342010000200014]
53. Mazloum, SR, Abbasi Teshnizi, M, Kianinejad, A & Gandomkar, F 2012, 'Effect of applying ice bag on pain intensity associated with chest tube removal after cardiac surgery', Horizon Medical Science, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 109-14.
54. McCabe, P 2001, Complementary therapies in nursing and midwifery, Ausmed Pub, Melbourne.
55. McFadden, KL, Healy, KM, Hoversten, KP, Ito, TA & Hernández, TD 2012, 'Efficacy of acupressure for non-pharmacological stress reduction in college students', Complementary Therapies Medicine, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 175-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2011.12.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2011.12.003]
56. Mehdizadeh, J 2002, [A guide to acupressure (Persian)], 1st edn, Noore Danesh Publications, Tehran.
57. Miller, RD, Cucchiara, RF & Miller, FD 2010, Miller's Anesthesia, 7th edn, Churchill Li-vingston, Philadelphia.
58. Mirzamani, M, Holisaz, MT, Sadidi, A & Safari B 2008, '[A Comparison of the effect of pain on various dimensions of the life of older people and people with chronic pain (Persian)]', Iranian Journal of Ageing, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 48-57.
59. Modabber, A, Rana, M, Ghassemi, A, Gerressen, M, Gellrich, NC, Hölzle, F et al. 2013, 'Three-dimensional evaluation of postoperative swelling in treatment of zygomatic bone fractures using two different cooling therapy methods: a randomized, observer-blind, prospective study', Trials, vol. 1, no. 14, p. 238. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-238 [DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-238]
60. Moemenabadi, H 2010, [Examining the effect of acupressure on the intensity of pain and physiologic indicators resulting from removal of chest drainage tube at ICU of Shariati Hospital (Persian)], MA thesis, Iran University of Medical Sciences. 61. Osunde, OD, Adebola, RA & Omeje, UK 2011, 'Management of inflammatory complications in third molar surgery: a review of the literature', African Health Sciences, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 530-537. [PMID] [PMCID]
61. Parker, J 2014, Acupressure and reflexology for dummies: mind and body relaxation, Wiley & Sons Publications, New Jersey.
62. Payami, MB, Daryei, N, Mousavinasab, N & Nourizade, E 2014, '[Effect of cold application in combination with Indomethacin suppository on chest tube removal pain in patients undergoing open heart surgery (Persian)]', Iranian Journal of Nursing & Midwifery Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 77-81. [PMID] [PMCID]
63. Rajaei, N, Choopani, N, Pishgoie, AH & Sharififar, S 2015, '[Examining the effect of acupressure on anxiety in patients scheduled to receive coronary angiography (Persian)]', Journal of Military Care Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 6-13. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.mcs.2.1.6]
64. Rouch, I, Achour Crawford, E, Roche, F, Castro Lionard, C, Laurent, B, Ntougou Assoumou, G et al. 2014, 'Seven-year predictors of self-rated health and life satisfaction in the elderly', Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 840-47. doi: 10.1007/s12603-014-0557-6 [DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0557-6]
65. Rowbotham, D 2005, 'Recent advances in the non-pharmacological management of postoperative nausea and vomiting', British Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 77-81. doi: /10.1093/bja/aei125
66. Saberi, F, Sadat, Z, Abedzadeh Kalahroudi, M & Taebi, M 2014, 'Effect of ginger on relieving nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial', Nursing & Midwifery Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, p. e11841. doi: 10.17795/nmsjournal11841 [DOI:10.17795/nmsjournal11841]
67. Sadri, B, Nematullahi, M, & Shahrami, R 2006, '[The effect of acupressure on reducing nausea and vomiting after adenotonsillectomy (Persian)]', Journal of Iran University of Medical Sciences, vol. 13, no. 53, pp. 121-26.
68. Sahbaei, F, Abedini, Sh, Ghandehari, H & Zare, M 2014, '[Examining the effect of foot reflexology massage on the pain of patients with scoliosis undergoing spinal surgery (Persian)]', Scientific Journal of Anesthesiology & Pain, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 63-71.
69. Salvo, SG 2015, Massage therapy: principles and practice, 5th edn, Elsevier Publications, New York.
70. Scott, M & Fishman, S 2012, Bonica's management of pain, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
71. Simoncini, M, Gatti, A, Quirico, PE, Balla, S, Capellero, B, Obialero, R et al. 2015, 'Acupressure in insomnia and other sleep disorders in elderly institutionalized patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease', Aging Clinical & Exprimental Research, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 37-42. [DOI:10.1007/s40520-014-0244-9] [PMID]
72. Stux, G, Berman, B & Pomeranz, B 2007, Basics of acupuncture [B Naderi Nabi, A Sedighinejad, Persian trans.]', Teymurzadeh Publications, Tehran. [PMID]
73. Tuckett, AG, Hodgkinson, B, Rouillon, L, Balil-Lozoya, T & Parker, D 2015, 'What carers and family said about music therapy on behaviours of older people with dementia in residential aged care', International Journal of Older People Nursing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 146-57. doi: 10.1111/opn.12071 [DOI:10.1111/opn.12071]
74. Wang, L, Gu, Z, Zhai, R, Zhao, S, Luo, L, Li, D et al. 2015, 'Efficacy of oral cryotherapy on oral mucositis prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials', PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 5, p. e0128763. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128763 [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0128763]
75. Wein, J 2014, 'Self-healing-cervical spondylosis: acupressure to relieve cervical spondylosis', viewed 24 June 2015, https://books.google.com/books?id=uwzvAwAAQBAJ
76. Weintraub, MI, Mamtani, R & Micozzi, MS 2008, Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Pain Management, Elsevier Publication, New York.
77. Wittig-Wells, D, Johnson, I, Samms-Mc Pherson, J, Thankachan, S, Titus, B, Jacob, A et al. 2015, 'Does the use of a brief cryotherapy intervention with analgesic administration improve pain management after total knee arthroplasty?', Orthopaedic Nursing, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 148-53. doi: 10.1097/nor.0000000000000143 [DOI:10.1097/NOR.0000000000000143]
78. Yeh, CH, Chien, LC, Balaban, D, Sponberg, R, Primavera, J, Morone, NE et al. 2013, 'A randomized clinical trial of auricular point acupressure for chronic low back pain: a feasibility study', Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, pp. 1-13. doi: 10.1155/2013/196978 [DOI:10.1155/2013/196978]
79. Yeh, CH, Morone, NE, Chien, LC, Cao, Y, Lu, H, Shen, J et al. 2014, 'Auricular point acupressure to manage chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study', Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2014, pp. 375173. doi: 10.1155/2014/375173 [DOI:10.1155/2014/375173]
80. Zisis, Ch, Tsirgogianni, K, Lazaridis, G, Lampaki, S, Baka, S, Mpoukovinas, I et al. 2015, 'Chest drainage systems in use', Annals of Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 43. doi: 0.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2015.02.09

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb