Volume 6, Issue 1 (Winter 2020)                   JCCNC 2020, 6(1): 7-12 | Back to browse issues page


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Khodabakhshi-Koolaee A. Comparison of Psychological Hardiness and Resiliency of Employed and Unemployed Female-headed Household. JCCNC. 2020; 6 (1) :7-12
URL: http://jccnc.iums.ac.ir/article-1-246-en.html
Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Khatam University, Tehran, Iran. , a.khodabakhshid@khatam.ac.ir
Abstract:   (527 Views)
Background: Employed and unemployed women have their special problems. This issue could be more important for female-headed households. Hardiness and resiliency are among the characteristics that are critical for fighting against life problems. This study aims to compare the psychological hardiness and resiliency of employed and unemployed female-headed households. 
Methods: This research was a comparative cross-sectional study. The sample included 120 female-headed households (60 employed and 60 unemployed) living in Tehran City, Iran from March to June 2018. The subjects were recruited among the women referring to the institutions affiliated with Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation in Tehran, Iran. The data were collected by the psychological hardiness scale and the Connor-Davidson resilience scale and analyzed in SPSS V. 21 using frequency, mean, standard deviation, and multivariate analysis of variance. 
Results: The results indicated a significant difference between employed and unemployed women in terms of psychological hardiness (32.03±11.50 vs 27.91±9.24) (P=0.034). Besides, there was a significant difference between these women in terms of resiliency (64.881±1.03 vs 59.55±12.72) (P=0.016).
Conclusion: The results indicated a significant difference between psychological hardiness and resiliency among employed and unemployed subjects. Also, the fundamental plans should be made for female-headed households so that they can remain independent and pursue a job.
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● The female-headed household population is growing all over the world and in Iran as well.
● The majority of female-headed households are single mothers. They are responsible for bringing food to the home and take care of their children.
● It is necessary to design basic programs and make the right decisions to empower the female-headed household. These programs should include finding jobs, health insurance, and training new skills. 
Plain Language Summary 
It is estimated that three million female-headed households live in Iran. These women become heads of households for various reasons such as the death of the husband or divorce, immigration, disappearing, fatal accidents or imprisonment, termination of marriage, military service, sickness, disability, addiction, and unemployment. Some psychological traits such as hardiness and resiliency, make people more resistant to life’s challenges. This study reveals that the psychological hardiness and resiliency of employed female-headed households is more than their unemployed counterparts.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2020/02/22 | Accepted: 2020/05/18 | Published: 2020/07/13

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